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I — What drives organizational behavior?


Amazon logo March, James G. "Decisions in Organizations and Theories of Choice." In Perspectives on Organization Design and Behavior. Edited by Andrew H. Van de Ven and William F. Joyne. New York, NY: Wiley, 1981, pp. 205-248. ISBN: 978-0471093589.

Amazon logo March, James. A Primer on Decisionmaking: How Decisions Happen. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1994. ISBN: 978-0029200353. (Preface, Chapter 1 "Limited Rationality," pp. 1-35; rest of chapter optional.)


Amazon logo Wilson, James Q. Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1989. ISBN: 978-0465007851. (Preface and chapters 3-6 required.)

Goldsmith, Arthur A. "Africa's Overgrown State Reconsidered: Bureaucracy and Economic Growth." World Politics 51, no. 4 (1999): 520-546.

II — Street-level bureaucrats (SLBs)


Amazon logo Lipsky, Michael. "The Critical Role of Street-Level Bureaucrats," "The Assault on Human Services: Bureaucratic Control, Accountability, and the Fiscal Crises," and "The Broader Context of Bureaucratic Relations." Chapters 1, 11, and 12 in Street Level Bureaucracy, Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1980. ISBN: 978-0871545244. (Required: pp. 3-25, 159-179, 181-191)

Amazon logo Maynard-Moody, Steven, and Michael Musheno. Cops, Teachers, Counselors: Stories from the Front Lines of Public Service. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2003. ISBN: 978-0472068326. (Required: pp. 3-8 of Chapter 1 "Dealing with Faces"; pp. 97-106 of Chapter 8 "Who are the Worthy?" Optional: pp. 77-96 of Chapter 7 "Putting a Fix on People: Identity, Conduct, and Street-level Work")


DiIulio, Jr., John. "Principled Agents: The Cultural Bases of Behavior in a Federal Government Bureaucracy." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 4, no. 3 (1994): 277-318. (Read pp. 278-284, 314-316; rest optional)

Scully, Maureen, and Amy Segal. "Passion with an Umbrella: Grassroots Activists in the Workplace." Research in the Sociology of Organizations 19 (2002): 127-170.

Amazon logo Kaufman, Herbert. The Forest Ranger: A Study in Administrative Behavior. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1960. ASIN: B0000CKMDK. (Required: Chapters 1 "Introduction", pp. 3-21; Chapter 7 "Conclusion"; recommended: Chapter 3, pp. 66-87)

Joshi, Anu. "Public Sector Unions and Policy Reform: The Case of Joint Forest Management in West Bengal." Draft article. Brighton, England: University of Sussex, Centre for the Future State, Institute of Development Studies, 2006.

Van Maanen, John. "Observations on the Making of Policemen." Human Organization 32, no. 4 (1973): 407-418.

Tendler, Judith, and Sara Freedheim. "Trust in a Rent-seeking World: Health and Government Transformed in Northeast Brazil." World Development 22, no. 12 (1994): 1771-1791.

Amazon logo Justice, Judith. "The Invisible Health Worker: The Peon," and "Sources of Information." In Policies, Plans, and People: Culture and Health Development in Nepal. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1986, pp. 101-106. ISBN: 978-0520054240.

IIB - SLBs, firms, and regulatory advances in the workplace


Dobbin, Frank, and John R. Sutton. "The Strength of a Weak State: The Rights Revolution and the Rise of Human Resources Management Divisions." American Journal of Sociology 104, no. 2 (1998): 441-76. (Required: pp. 441-61, 470-471 "Conclusion", skim the rest)

Dobbin, Frank, Alexandra Kalev, and Erin Kelly. "Best Practices or Best Guesses? Assessing the Efficacy of Corporate Affirmative Action and Diversity Policies." American Sociological Review 71 (2006): 589-617. (Required: pp. 589-596, 602-612; rest optional)


Dobbin, Frank, and Erin L. Kelly. "How to Stop Harassment: Professional Construction of Legal Compliance in Organizations." American Journal of Sociology 112 (2007): 1203-1243. (Required: pp. 1203-1207, 1230-1236; rest optional)

Kelman, Steven. "Enforcement of Occupational Safety and Health Regulations: a Comparison of Swedish and American Practices." In Enforcing Regulation. Edited by K. Hawkins and J. M. Thomas. Boston, MA: Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing, 1984. (Required: Chapter 5, pp. 97-119)


Special session with Roberto Pires, DUSP International Development Group dissertation researcher

Pfeffer, Jeffery. "Human Resources from an Organizational Behavior Perspective: Some Paradoxes." Journal of Economic Perspectives 21, no. 4 (2007): 115-134.

Pires, Roberto. "The Craft of Compliance: Labor Inspectors and the Reconciling of Economic Development with Social Protection in Brazil." Paper presented at the MIT/DFID/IPEA Round Table, "Crescimento econômico e o cumprimento de normas e padrões: casos bem-sucedidos e recomendações para políticas públicas" ("Economic Growth and Compliance with Standards: Successful Cases and Lessons for Public Policy"). Brazil, December 13, 2007.


Pfeffer, J. and G. K. Salancik. "The Created Environment: Controlling Interdependence through Law and Social Sanction." Chapter 8 in The External Control of Organization. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1978. (Required: pp.188-197, 202-208, 210-222; rest optional)


"Stateless" compliance? Global firms, NGOs, and voluntarism

Seidman, Gay. "Citizens, Markets, and Transnational Labor Activism", "Labor Rights as Human Rights: Regulation in the Context of a 'Thinned' National State", "Constructing a Culture of Compliance in Guatemala", "Citizenship at Work." Chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 in Beyond the Boycott: Labor Rights, Human Rights, and Transnational Activism. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007. (Required: pp. 1-14; 15-46, 102-131, 132-144; rest optional)

Lally, Anne. "Interim Report: Report on the Progress and Learning of the Jo-In Pilot Projects in its First Phase of Implementation, February 2003-September 2006." London, UK: Joint Initiative on Corporate Accountability and Workers Rights, 2007. (Required: "Introduction," pp. 3-7; "Part II: Observations about collaboration to date," pp. 18-30; rest optional)


Nixon, Ron. "Bottom Line for (Red)." The New York Times, February 6, 2008.

III — Planning thinking, models, critiques


Special session with Professor Bish Sanyal, DUSP International Development Group, and Director of DUSP Special Program for Urban and Regional Studies

Sanyal, Bish. "Critical about Criticality." Critical Planning: A Journal of the UCLA Department of Urban Planning 15 (Summer 2008).

Sanyal, Bish. "Planning as Anticipation of Resistance." Planning Theory 4, no. 3 (2005): 225-245.

Easterly, William. "The Big Push Déjà Vu: A Review of Jeffrey Sachs's 'The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time.'" Journal of Economic Literature 44 (2006): 96-105.


Amazon logo Goldman, Michael. Imperial Nature: the World Bank Struggles for Social Justice in the Age of Globalization. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005. ISBN: 978-0300104080. (Required: "Preface" and "Producing Green Science Inside Headquarters," pp.100-150)


Public management reforms, models and case studies: some assessments

Pollitt, Christopher. "Justification by Works or by Faith? Evaluating the New Public Management." Evaluation 1, no. 2 (1995): 133-154.

Chetkovich, Carol and David Kirp. "Cases and Controversies: How Novitiates are Trained to be Masters of the Public Policy Universe." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 20, no. 2 (2001): 283-314.


Kettl, Donald F. and John J. Dilulio, Jr. "Learning from Public and Private Reform?" In Cutting Government. A Report of the Brookings Institution's Center for Public Management. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution Center for Public Management, 1995. ISBN: 978-0815749134. (Required: Chapter 2, pp. 27-41, especially pp. 27-36, 40-41.)

Centre for the Future State. Signposts to More Effective States: Responding to Governance Challenges in Developing Countries. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex, Centre for the Future State, Institute of Development Studies, June 2005. ISBN: 978-1858648736. (PDF)#

IV — Decentralized service delivery, the state, and NGOs


Amazon logo Smith, Steven and Michael Lipsky. "Contracting for Services in the Welfare State", and "Services and Clients under Contracting." Chapter 1 and Chapter 6 in Nonprofits for Hire: The Welfare State in the Age of Contracting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993. ISBN: 978-0674626393.

Amazon logo Fox, Jonathan. "Introduction," and "The Sandwich Strategy: Opening from Above Meets Mobilization from Below." Chapter 1 (pp. 1-8) and chapter 6 (151-205) in The Politics of Food in Mexico: State Power and Social Mobilization. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993. ISBN: 978-0801427169.


Amazon logo Salamon, Lester M. "Of Market Failure, Voluntary Failure, and Third-Party Government: Toward a Theory of Government-Nonprofit Relations in the Welfare State." In Shifting the Debate: Public/Private Sector Relations in the Modern Welfare State. Edited by Susan A. Ostrander and Stuart Langton. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1987. ISBN: 978-0887381850.

Nance, Earthea and Leonard Ortolano. "Community Participation in Urban Sanitation: Experiences in Northeastern Brazil." Journal of Planning Education and Research 3, no. 26 (2007): 284-300.

Buur, Lars, and Helene Maria Kyed. "Contested Sources of Authority: Re-claiming State Sovereignty by Formalizing Traditional Authority in Mozambique." Development and Change 37, no. 4 (2006): 847-869.

Krishna, Anirudh. "What is Happening to Caste? A View from Some North Indian Villages." Journal of Asian Studies 62, no. 4 (2003): 1171-1193.

Liew, Jeff. "Traditional Strengths and Modern Technologies: Exploring and Building Synergies in the Pacific." Chapter 9 in Changing Policy and Practice From Below: Community Experiences in Poverty Reduction. Edited by Anirudh Krishna. New York, NY: UNDP (United Nations Development Program), 2001.


Special session with Professor Melani Cammett, Brown University Political Science, and Academy Scholar, Harvard Academy for International and Area Studies

Cammett, Melani. "Welfare and Solidarities in Plural Societies: Social Services and Sectarianism in Lebanon." Draft article. Providence, RI: Brown University, Political Science Department, 2008.

[Also relevant to this session is the Ananth Pur and Moore article assigned for session 22.]

V — Organizations and their environments


Amazon logo Pfeffer, Jeffrey, and Gerald R. Salancik. The External Control of Organizations: a Resource Dependence Perspective. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1978. ISBN: 978-0060451936. (Required: Chapters 1, 4, 10.)


Amazon logo Lester, Richard K., and Michael J. Piore. "Introduction" and "Public Space." Chapters 1 and 6 in Innovation: The Missing Dimension. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN: 978-0674019942. (Required: pp. 1-12, 121-147; recommended: Chapters 4 and 5.)

Amazon logo Argyris, Chris. On Organizational Learning. 2nd edition. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. ISBN: 978-0631213093.


International donors: their environments, their outcomes

Amazon logo Tendler, Judith. Inside Foreign Aid. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975. ISBN: 978-0801817311. (Required: Chapters 1, 5, 8: pp. 1-7, 54-72, 102-110; rest optional.)

Wade, Robert. "Japan, the World Bank, and the Art of Paradigm Maintenance: The East Asian Miracle in Political Perspective." New Left Review 1 (1996): 3-37.


Amazon logo Rosen, George. Western Economists and Eastern Societies: Agents of Change in South Asia, 1950-1970. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Press, 1985. ISBN: 978-0801831874.

Amazon logo Mallaby, Sebastian. The World's Banker: A Story of Failed States, Financial Crises, and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations. London, UK: Penguin Books, 2004. ISBN: 978-1594200236.


Amazon logo Hirschman, Albert O. Development Projects Observed. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press, 1995. ISBN: 978-0815736523. (Required: Preface and whole text.)


Amazon logo Ramsamy, Edward. The World Bank and Urban Development: From Projects to Policy. New York, NY: Routledge, 2006. ISBN: 978-0415344395. (Required: pp.1-4 ("Introduction") and pp. 98-124 (Chapter 4, "The Fall of Poverty Alleviation"); optional: pp. 5-35 (Chapter 1, "Theorizing the World Bank and Development") and pp. 67-97 (Chapter 3, "The Search for an Urban Agenda at the World Bank".))

VI — Politicians and clientelism: what are the impacts on service delivery?


Scott, James S. "Corruption, Machine Politics, and Political Change." American Political Science Review 63 (1969): 1142-1158.

Kaufman, Jason. "Rent-Seeking and Municipal Social Spending: Data from America's Early Urban-Industrial Age." Urban Affairs Review 39 (2004): 552-588.


Amazon logo Fogelson, Robert M. Big City Police. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977. ISBN: 978-0674072817. (Strongly recommended: Chapter 1; recommended: Chapters 4, 6, and 9.)

Amazon logo Piattoni, Simona. "'Virtuous Clientelism': The Southern Question Resolved." Chapter 10 in Italy's 'Southern Question': Orientalism in One Country. Edited by Jane Schneider. Oxford, UK: Berg, 1998. ISBN: 978-1859739976.

Amazon logo Teaford, Jon C. The Unheralded Triumph: City Government in America, 1870-1900. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1984. ISBN: 978-0801830631. (Strongly recommended: pp. 1-14 and 307-314; skim 132-173.)

Amazon logo Leonard D. White. The Jacksonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1829-1861. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1954. ISBN: 978-0026267403. (Chapters 1, 16, 17; and 28 (pp. 253-260 only, rest of chapter optional.))

Amazon logo O'Gorman, Frank. "Patronage and the Reform of the State in England, 1700-1860." In Clientelism, Interests, and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Edited by Simona Piattoni. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 978-0521804776.

Samuels, David J. "Pork Barreling is not Credit Claiming or Advertising: Campaign Finance and the Sources of the Personal Vote in Brazil." The Journal of Politics 64 (2002): 845-863.

Wade, Robert. "The Management of Irrigation Systems: How to Evoke Trust and Avoid the Prisoners' Dilemma," World Development 16 (1988): 489-500.

Amazon logo Woodall, Brian. Japan under Construction: Corruption, Politics, and Public Works. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996. ISBN: 978-0520088153. (Introduction and Conclusion, pp. 1-24, 124-148.)

Weisman, Steven. "Wolfowitz Corruption Drive Rattles World Bank," The New York Times, September 14, 2006.


Special session with Professor Merilee Grindle, JFK School, and Director, David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard University

Grindle, Merilee. "Jobs for the Boys: Patronage and the Politics of Public Sector Reform." Draft article. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School, David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, 2008.

Bunker, Stephan G., and Lawrence E. Cohen. "Collaboration and Competition in Two Colonization Projects: Toward a General Theory of Official Corruption." Human Organization 42 (1983): 106-114.

Gopinathreddy, M., K. Jayalakshmi, Anne-Marie Goetz. "Politics of Pro-poor Reform in the Health Sector: Primary Healthcare in Tribal Areas of Visakhapatnam." Economic and Political Weekly, February 4, 2006.


Ellwood, John, and Eric Patashnik. "In Praise of Pork." The Public Interest 110 (1993): 19-33.

VII — Back to organizations


Amazon logo DiMaggio, Paul J., and Walter W. Powell. "The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organization Fields." Chapter 3 in The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Edited by Walter W. Powell and Paul J. DiMaggio. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1991. ISBN: 9780226677095.

Amazon logo Meyer, John W., and Brian Rowan. "Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony." Chapter 2 in The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Edited by Walter W. Powell and Paul J. DiMaggio. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1991. ISBN: 9780226677095. (Required: pp. 54-62; rest optional.)


Redundancy, overlap, and duplication

Landau, Martin. "Redundancy, Rationality, and the Problem of Duplication and Overlap." Public Administration Review 29 (1969): 346-358.

Amazon logo Tendler, Judith. "Reinventing the Projects." In New Lessons From Old Projects: The Workings of Rural Development in Northeast Brazil. World Bank Publications, 1993. ISBN: 978-0821325124. (Required: skim Executive Summary, pp. xix-xxvi; Chapter 2, especially section on "Taking over," pp. 14-33.)


Inter-agency collaboration, competition, or neither?

Competition (as vs. collaboration)

Weiss, Janet A. "Pathways to Cooperation Among Public Agencies." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 7 (1987): 94-117.

Easterly, William. "The Cartel of Good Intentions." Foreign Policy 131 (2002): 40-50.


Amazon logo Chisholm, D.W. Coordination without Hierarchy: Informal Structures in Multiorganizational Systems. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780520063686. (Chapters 1, 9 and 10.)

Killick, Tony, Carlos N. Castel-Branco, and Richard Gerster. "Perfect Partners? The Performance of Programme Aid Partners in Mozambique." Report to Programme Aid Partners and the Government of Mozambique. London, UK: Program Aid Partners, DFID, 2004.

McCormick, Dorothy, Winnie Mitullah, and Erick Manga. "Extent and Forms of Donor Proliferation and Coordination in Kenya: the Case of Inclusive Industrialisation and Governance Reform, 2000-2005." Working paper. Kenya, University of Nairobi, Institute for Development Studies, 2007. (Strongly recommended: pp. 1-48; rest optional.)

Associated Press. "Britain May Withhold World Bank Donation." The New York Times, September 19, 2006.

Perlez, Jane. "China Competes with West on Aid to its Neighbors." The New York Times, September 19, 2006.

Bruck, Connie. "Millions for Millions: This Year's Nobel Peace Prize Winner and Some High-Tech Entrepreneurs are Competing to Provide Credit to the World's Poor." The New Yorker, October 30, 2006.

Malkin, Elisabeth. "Microfinance's Success Sets off a Debate in Mexico." The New York Times, April 5, 2008.

VIII — Decentralized service delivery, the state, and NGOs (continued)


From rich to poor countries, international vs. local NGOs vs. local governments

Swidler, Ann. "Syncretism and Subversion in AIDS Governance: How Locals Cope with Global Demands." International Affairs 82, no. 2 (2006): 269-284.

Cooley, Alexander and James Ron. "The NGO Scramble: Organizational Insecurity and the Political Economy of Transnational Action." International Security 27, no. 1 (1991): 5-39.

Sanyal, Bishwapriya. "Antagonistic Cooperation: A Case Study of Nongovernmental Organizations, Government and Donors' Relationships in Income-Generating Projects in Bangladesh." World Development 19, no. 10 (1991): 1367-1379.


Evans, Peter B. "Introduction: Development Strategies across the Public-Private Divide," and "Government Action, Social Capital and Development: Reviewing the Evidence on Synergy." World Development 24, no. 6 (1996): 1033-1037 and 1119-1132.

Tendler, Judith. "What Ever Happened to Poverty Alleviation?" World Development 17, no. 7 (1989): 1033-1044.

Platteau, Jean-Philippe; and Anita Abraham. "Participatory Development in the Presence of Endogenous Community Imperfections." Journal of Development Studies 39, no. 2 (2002): 104-36.

Kilby, Peter. "Evaluating Technical Assistance." World Development 7, no. 3 (1979): 309-323.

Dugger, Celia. "Ending Famine, Simply by Ignoring the Experts," The New York Times, December 2, 2007.

Strom, Stephanie. "Short on Funding, Red Cross Will Cut Jobs," The New York Times, January 16, 2008.


Special session with Gabrielle Kruks-Wisner, MIT Political Science dissertation researcher

Ananth Pur, Kripa, and Mick Moore. "Ambiguous Institutions: Traditional Governance and Local Democracy in Rural India." IDS Working Paper #282. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies, 2007.

Kruks-Wisner, Gabrielle. "Two Tsunamis: Informal Governance the Local Politics of Aid Delivery in Tamil Nadu, India." Draft article. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Political Science Department, 2008.


Amazon logo Tsai, Lily L. Accountability without Democracy: Solidary Groups and Public Goods Provision in Rural China. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780521692809. (Chapters 1, 4, and 9.)

Tsai, Lilly. "Solidary Groups, Informal Accountability, and Local Public Goods Provision in Rural China." American Political Science Review 101, no. 2 (2007): 355-372.

Sanyal, Bishwapriya and Vinit Mukhija. "Institutional Pluralism and Housing Delivery: A Case of Unforeseen Conflicts in Mumbai, India." World Development 29, no. 12 (2001): 2043-2057.

James, Estelle. "Why Do Different Countries Choose a Different Public-Private Mix of Educational Services?" Journal of Human Resources 28, no. 3 (1993): 571-592.

Moore, Mick. "The New Private Philanthropies Could Challenge the Existing Aid Business." The Boston Review 31, no. 4 (2006): 11-12.

Overseas Development Institute. "The Impact of NGO Development Projects." Briefing Paper #2, May, 1996. (PDF)#

Shuman, Michael H. "Why do Progressive Foundations Give Too Little to Too Many?" The Nation, January 12, 1998.


Provision of services: public, private, or both?

Starr, Paul. "The Meaning of Privatization." Yale Law and Policy Review 6 (1988): 6-41.

Altshuler, Alan A., and Marc Zegans. "Innovation and Creativity: Comparisons between Public Management and Private Enterprise." Cities 7, no. 1 (1990): 16-24.


Amazon logo Allison, Graham. "Public and Private Management: are they Fundamentally Alike in All Unimportant Respects?" In Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Edited by Richard Stillman. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1988, pp. 689-718. ISBN: 978-0395447284.

Bayliss, Kate and Kessler, Tim. Can Privatisation and Commercialisation of Public Services Help Achieve the MDGs? An Assessment. IPC Working Paper No. 22. Brazil: International Poverty Centre, 2006.

Warner, Mildred, and Amir Hefetz. "Privatization and the Market Structuring Role of Local Government." Paper presented at the Economic Policy Institute Conference, Washington, D.C., January 11, 2001.

Amazon logo Millward, Robert. Private and Public Enterprises in Europe: Energy, Telecommunications and Transport, 1830-1990. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN: 978-0521835244.


The growth of consultants to the public and nonprofit sectors

Amazon logo McKenna, Christopher Davis. "Introduction," "Creating the Contractor State: Consultants in the American Federal Government," and "Finding Profit in Nonprofits: the Influence of Consultants in the Third Sector." Introduction and chapters 4 and 5 in The World's Newest Profession: Management Consulting in the Twentieth Century. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN: 978-0521810395.

Ban, Carolyn, and Mark Huddleston. "Exporting Administrative Reform to Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: The Role of the Consultants in Technical Assistance." Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the Association of Public Policy and Management, Washington, D.C., November 1999.


Amazon logo Argyris, Chris. Flawed Advice and the Management Trap. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 978-0195132861.


Civil society, NGOs, and democracy: when genuine, when not

Amazon logo Skocpol, Theda. "Warren Durgin's Gravestone: Understanding American Civic Democracy," "How the United States Became a Civic Nation," and "From Membership to Management." Chapters 1, 2, and 4 in Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003. ISBN: 978-0806135328.