To view the specimens mentioned below, click the linked text or visit the specimens section of the course.


Laboratory Manual

I. The Power Of Metal In The Andean World

A. Introduction (PDF)

i. Specimen A
ii. Specimen B
iii. Specimen C

B. Exercises

i. Protocols

a. Direct Reduction Smelting of Copper Oxide Ore (PDF)
b. Lost-Wax Casting of Copper-Silver Alloy Bar Ingots (
c. Casting and Working Copper-Silver Alloys (

ii. Specimens

a. Ecuador

1. Axe
2. Button ring
3. Tumi knife
4. Needle
5. Axe money
6. Nose ring 1

b. Columbia

1. Nose ring 2
2. Nose ring 3

iii. Examinations of Metallic Microstructures

a. Castings (PDF)
b. Worked Metal (PDF)
c. Archaeological Artifacts from Ecuador and Columbia (PDF)

II. The Metallographic Examination of Archaeological Artifacts (PDF)

Periodic Table of the Elements (PDF)