Readings

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The complete citations for the readings associated with each lecture session are available in the bibliography listed below the table.

LEC # TOPICS READINGS
1 Course Mechanics

Survey of Topics to be Covered

Overview of the Structure of Music
Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions. Pitch, Tone Quality/Color, Consonance, Melody, Harmony, Tonality, Organization of Voices, Rhythm, Dynamics, Expressive Timing, Tonal and Rhythmic Hierarchies
2 Overview of Auditory Perception and the Time Sense: Pitch, Timbre, Consonance/Roughness, Loudness, Rhythm, Auditory Grouping, Event Structure

Overview of the Auditory System: Representation and Processing of Sounds in the Auditory Pathway
Deutsch. Weinberger chapter.

Handel. pp. 461-488.
3 Musical Acoustics
Sound and Vibration, Production of Sounds, Representations of Sound, Waveforms and Power Spectra, Characteristics of Musical Instruments and Human Voices, Similarities and Differences between Speech and Musical Sounds

Musical Pitch
Acoustic Correlates - Pure and Complex Tones, Acoustics of Instruments
Psychophysics - Existence Regions, JNDs, Invariances, Dominance Region, Octaves, Resolved Harmonics
Harmonicity and Auditory Grouping; Relative and Absolute Pitch, Introduction to Auditory Representations

Handel. Sections on Sound and Vibration.

Moore. Chapter on Pitch.

4 Psychoacoustically-based Theories of Hearing
Theory of Auditory Filters
Moore. Sections on Auditory Filter Theory.
5 Representation of Pitch in the Auditory System

Neurocomputational Models for Pitch
Spectral Pattern vs. Temporal Pattern Models
Licklider, Terhardt, Grossberg and Cohen, Bharucha
Equivalence Classes and Octave Relations; Neural Evidence Pros and Cons
de Cheveigne. Chapter on Pitch models.
6 Timbre
Acoustic Correlates - Spectrum, Time-Frequency Trajectory, Amplitude Dynamics Dimensional Analysis of Timbre Perceptual Spaces (Multidimensional Scaling) Role of Timbre in Defining and Distinguishing Separate Voices, Musical Coloration Neural Correlates, Coding of Spectrum, Attack, Decay, Modulation

See Handel on Source Identification and Discussion of Phonetic and Musical.

Risset, Jean-Claude. "Musical Acoustics." In Handbook of Perception. Edited by M. P. Friedman. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Chapter in Deutsch by Risset and Wessel on Timbre (first sections up to pp. 113-118).

7 Harmony I: Consonance, Dissonance, and Roughness
Theories: Helmholtz, Stumpf, Plomp, Terhardt
Sensory and Hedonic Aspects
Neural Correlates (Auditory Nerve, Midbrain, Cortex)
Moore. Chapter 8, pp. 269-273.

Deutsch. Rasch and Plomp chapter "Re: Beats, Combination Tones, and Consonance".
8 Scales and Tuning Systems
History, Basic Psychophysics, Scales and Tuning Systems, Role in Music Theory
Relations between Auditory and Cultural Factors
Burns chapter on Intervals and Scales (look at section on consonance).
9 Music and the Cerebral Cortex. Overview of Functional Role of Cortex in Music Perception and Cognition.
Results of Imaging and Lesion Studies. Hemispheric Assymmetries
Tramo. Music of the Hemispheres and Tramo et al on Consonance.
10 Harmony II: Chords and Keys
Perception of Chords, Pitch Multiplicity (Parncutt, Terhardt), Higher Order Structure of Pitch Space (Shepard, Krumhansl), Fundamental Bass, Keys, Major-Minor and Resolved/Unresolved Chords, Tonality Induction, Tonal Schemas/Key Relations, Computational Models (Leman), Neural Correlates of Tonal Relations and Expectations (fMRI, ERP)
Deutsch. Burns chapter on Intervals and Scales.
11 Presentation and Discussion of Term Projects
12 Melody
Perception of Note Sequences, Existence Region, Melodic Expectation, Melodic Recognition, Melodic Memory, Melodic Grouping Processes (Phrases), Neural Representation of Melody, Problem of Melodic Invariance under Transposition
Handel. Chapter 10.

Deutsch. Pitch Sequences.
13 Rhythm I: Rhythm Perception and Production
Basic Psychophysics of Rhythm Perception and Production
Role of Rhythm in Melodic Recognition and Recall

Rhythm II: Computational Models
Oscillator Models, Clock Models, Rhythmic Hierarchies
Handel. Chapter 11.

Deutsch. Clarke chapter.

Also begin looking at Snyder. Music and Memory.
14 Time Perception, Event Structure, and Temporal Expectations
Auditory Spectral and Temporal Integration; Chunking of Segments
Time Perception (Fraisse, Jones)

Auditory Scene Analysis and Organization of Voices
Grouping of Sounds – Onset, Harmonicity, Rhythm
Sound Streams (Bregman, Deutsch), Polyphony
Grouping Processes and Musical Structure
Snyder. Music and Memory.

Handel. "Stream Segreg." Chapter 7.
15 Music, Speech and Language: Parallels and Contrasts (Bernstein, Jackendoff) Bigand chapter in Thinking in Sound.
16 Emotion and Meaning in Music
Musical Semantics, Music and Pleasure

Music and Long-term Memory
17 Clinical Applications of the Neuropsychology of Music
18 Clinical Issues. Music Exposure and Hearing Loss. Music Perception and Hearing Impairment. Music Perception by Cochlear Implant Users
19 Effects of Cortical Lesions on Music Perception and Cognition

Music Therapy: Clinical Problems and Prospects
20 Developmental Psychology of Music

A Question of Origins: Comparative and Evolutionary Psychology of Music
McDermott and Hauser paper.
21 Music Performance. Organization and Timing of Movement
22 Special Topics: Absolute Pitch, Synesthesia, etc.
23 Student Term Project Presentations
24 Student Term Project Presentations (cont.)
25 Overview and Recap of Major Themes; Other Special Topics


Course Texts

Amazon logo Deutsch, D., ed. The Psychology of Music. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780122135644.

Amazon logo Handel, S. Listening: An Introduction to the Perception of Auditory Events. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780262081795.

Amazon logo Snyder, Bob. Music and Memory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780262194419.

Amazon logo McAdams, and Bigand. Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780198522584.

Amazon logo Aello, R., ed. Musical Perceptions. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN: 9780195064759.

Amazon logo Moore, B. C. J. An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing. 5th ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780125056281.


Additional Readings (grouped by topic)

General Sources

Audio Demonstrations (CD), Acoustical Society of America.

Amazon logo Christensen,Thomas ed. Cambridge Handbook of the History of Western Music Theory. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780521623711.

Seashore, Carl E. Psychology of Music. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1938.

Zatorre, Robert J. The Biological Foundations of Music. Vol. 930. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 2001.

Pitch

Burns, Edward M. "Intervals, Scales, and Tuning". In The Psychology of Music. 2nd ed. Edited by D. Deutsch. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.

Slaney, Malcolm, and Richard F. Lyon. "On the Importance of Time - A Temporal Representation of Sound." In Visual Representations of Speech Signals. Edited by M. Crawford. New York: John Wiley, 1993.

de Boer, E. "On the "Residue" and Auditory Pitch Perception." In Auditory System (Handbook of Sensory Physiology). Edited by W. D. Neff. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1976.

Wightman, F. L., and D. M. Green. "The Perception of Pitch." American Scientist 62 (1974): 208-215.

Goldstein, J. L. "An Optimum Processor Theory for the Central Formation of the Pitch of Complex Tones." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, no. 6 (1973): 1496-1516.

Amazon logo Moore, B. C. J. An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing. 5th ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780125056281.

Lyon, Richard, and Shihab Shamma. "Auditory Representations of Timbre and Pitch." In Auditory Computation. Edited by R. R. Fay. New York: Springer Verlag, 1996.

de Cheveigné, Alain. "Pitch Perception Models." In Pitch. Edited by A. J. Oxenham. New York: Springer Verlag. (In press.)

Meddis, R., and M. J. Hewitt. "Virtual Pitch and Phase Sensitivity of a Computer Model of the Auditory Periphery. I. Pitch Identification." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, no. 6 (1991): 2866-2882.

———. "Virtual Pitch and Phase Sensitivity of a Computer Model of the Auditory Periphery. II. Phase Sensitivity." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, no. 6 (1991): 2883-2894.

Cariani, Peter A., and Bertrand Delgutte. "Neural Correlates of the Pitch of Complex Tones. I. Pitch and Pitch Salience. II. Pitch Shift, Pitch Ambiguity, Phase-invariance, Pitch Circularity, and the Dominance Region for Pitch." J. Neurophysiology 76, no. 3 (1996): 1698-1734.

Cariani, P. "Temporal Coding of Periodicity Pitch in the Auditory System: An Overview." Neural Plast 6, no. 4 (1999): 147-72.

Schwarz, D. W. F., and R. W. W. Tomlinson. "Spectral Response Patterns of Auditory Cortical Neurons to Harmonic Complex Tones in Alert Monkey (Macaca Mulatta)." Journal of Neurophysiology 64 (1990): 282-298.

Terhardt, E. "Pitch, Consonance, and Harmony." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55 (May, 1974): 1061-1069.

Terhardt, Ernst, Gerhard Stoll, and Manfred Seewann. "Pitch of Complex Signals according to Virtual-Pitch Theory: Test, Examples, and Predictions." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, no. 3 (1982): 671-678.

Timbre

See Handel on Source Identification and Discussion of Phonetic and Musical.

Risset, Jean-Claude. "Musical Acoustics." In Handbook of Perception. Edited by M. P. Friedman. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Consonance

Rasch, R., and R. Plomp. The Perception of Musical Tones. Edited by D. Deutsch, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999, pp. 89-112.

Plomp, Reinier. Aspects of Tone Sensation. London: Academic Press, 1976.

Plomp, R., and W. J. M. Levelt. "Tonal Consonance and Critical Bandwidth." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 38 (1965): 548-560.

Kameoka, A., and M. Kuriyagawa. "Consonance Theory I. Consonance of Dyads." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 45 (1969): 1451-1459.

———. "Consonance Theory II. Consonance of Complex Tones and Its Calculation Method." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 45 (1969): 1460-1469.

Sethares, William. Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale. London: Springer, 1999.

Terhardt, E. "Pitch, Consonance, and Harmony." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55 (May, 1974): 1061-1069.

von Helmholtz, Hermann. On The Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for The Theory of Music. New York: Dover, 1895. (Reprint 1954).

Stumpf, C. Tonpsychologie. Vols. I and II. Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1883/1890.

Tramo, M. J., P. A. Cariani, B. Delgutte, and L. D. Braida. "Neurobiological Foundations for the Theory of Harmony in Western Tonal Music." Ann N Y Acad Sci 930 (2001): 92-116.

DeWitt, Lucinda A., and Robert G. Crowder. "Tonal Fusion of Consonant Musical Intervals: The Oomph in Stumpf."  Perception and Psychophysics 41, no. 1 (1987): 73-84.

Scales and Tunings

Sethares, William. Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale. London: Springer, 1999.

Tonality and Harmony

Rameau, J. P. Treatise on Harmony. Translated by P. Gossett. New York: Dover, 1722. (Reprint 1971).

Amazon logo Handel, S. Listening: An Introduction to the Perception of Auditory Events. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780262081795.

Amazon logo Piston, W. Harmony. 5th ed. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 1987. ISBN: 9780393954807.

Bharucha, J. J., and K. Stoeckig. "Reaction Time and Musical Expectancy: Priming of Chords." J. Exp. Psychol. (Human Perception and Performance) 12 (1986): 403-410.

Tillman, B., J. J. Bharucha, and Emmanuel Bigand. "Implicit Learning of Tonality: A Self-organizing Approach." Psychological Review 107, no. 4 (2000): 885-913.

Janata, P., J. L. Birk, J. D. Van Horn, M. Leman, B. Tillmann, and J. J. Bharucha. "The Cortical Topography of Tonal Structures underlying Western Music." Science 298, no. 5601 (2002): 2167-70.

Bharucha, Jamshed J. "Neural Nets, Temporal Composites, and Tonality." In The Psychology of Music. Edited by D. Deutsch. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.

Bharucha, Jamshed J., and Peter M. Todd. "Modeling the Perception of Tonal Structure with Neural Nets." In Connectionism and Music. Edited by G. Loy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.

Krumhansl, Carol L. Cognitive Foundations of Musical Pitch. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Melody

Amazon logo Handel, S. Listening: An Introduction to the Perception of Auditory Events. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780262081795.

Deutsch, Diana. Grouping Mechanisms in Music. Edited by D. Deutsch. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.

Rhythm and Time Perception

Essens, Peter J., and Dirk-Jan Povel. "Metrical and Nonmetrical Representations of Temporal Patterns." Perception and Psychophysics 37, no. 1 (1985): 1-7.

Clynes, M., and J. Walker. "Neurobiologic Functions, Rhythm, Time, and Pulse in Music." In Music, Mind, and Brain: the Neuropsychology of Music. Edited by M. Clynes. New York: Plenum, 1982.

Clynes, Manfred. "When Time is Music." In Rhythm in Psychological, Linguistic, and Musical Processes. Edited by M. Clynes. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1986.

Clarke, E. F. Rhythm and Timing in Music. Edited by D. Deutsch. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.

Large, Edward. "Periodicity, Pattern Formation, and Rhythmic Structure." J. New Music Research 30, no. 2 (2001).

Fraisse, Paul. The Psychology of Time. New York: Harper and Row, 1978.

———. "Time and Rhythm Perception." In Handbook of Perception. Volume VIII. Perceptual Coding. Edited by M. P. Friedman. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Jones, Mari Riess. "Time, Our Lost Dimension: Toward a New Theory of Perception, Attention, and Memory." Psychological Review 83, no. 5 (1976): 323-255.

———. "Perspectives on Musical Time." In Action and Perception in Rhythm and Music. Edited by A. Gabrielsson. Stockholm: Royal Swedish Academy of Music, 1987.

Jones, Mari Riess, and William Yee. "Attending to Auditory Events: the Role of Temporal Organization." In Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition. Edited by E. Bigand. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Temporal Models

Cariani, Peter. "Temporal Codes, Timing Nets, and Music Perception." J. New Music Res. 30, no. 2 (2002): 107-136.

Leman, Marc. "An Auditory Model of the Role of Short-term Memory in Probe-tone Ratings." Music Perception 17, no. 4 (2000): 481-510.

Auditory Grouping

Bregman, Albert S. Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990.

Snyder. (course text)

Stumpf, C. Tonpsychologie. Vols. I & II. Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1883/1890.

Darwin, C. J., and R. P. Carlyon. "Auditory Grouping." In Handbook of Perception and Cognition: Hearing. Edited by B. C. J. Moore. New York: Academic Press, 1995.

Deutsch, Diana. "The Processing of Pitch Combinations." In The Psychology of Music. Edited by D. Deutsch. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.

Leman, Marc. ed. Music, Gestalt, and Computing. Berlin: Springer, 1997.

Music and the Cortex

Tramo, Mark Jude. "Music of the Hemispheres." Science 291 (2001): 54-56.

Janata, P., J. L. Birk, J. D. Van Horn, M. Leman, B. Tillmann, and J. J. Bharucha. "The Cortical Topography of Tonal Structures Underlying Western Music." Science 298, no. 5601 (2002): 2167-70.

Tramo, Mark Jude, Gaurav D. Shah, and Louis D. Braida. "The Functional Role of Auditory Cortex in Frequency Processing and Pitch Perception." J. Neurophysiol 87 (2002): 122-139.

Zatorre, R. J., A. C. Evans, and E. Meyer. "Neural Mechanisms underlying Melodic Perception and Memory for Pitch." The Journal of Neuroscience 14, no. 4 (1994): 1908-1919.

Samson, S., and R. J. Zatorre. "Contribution of the Right Temporal Lobe to Musical Timbre Discrimination." Neuropsychologia 32, no. 2 (1994): 231-240.

Music and Speech Perception

Amazon logo Handel, S. Listening: An Introduction to the Perception of Auditory Events. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780262081795.

Amazon logo Moore B. C. J. An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing. 5th ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780125056281.

Patel, A. D., I. Peretz, M. J. Tramo, and R. Labreque. "Processing Prosodic and Musical Patterns: A Neuropsychological Investigation." Brain and Language 61 (1998): 123-144.

Music, Language, and Cognition

Bernstein, L. The Unanswered Question. Norton Lectures. DVD, audio, book.

Amazon logo Lerdahl, F. and R. Jackendoff. A Generative Theory of Tonal Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780262621076.

Amazon logo Lerdahl, F. Tonal Pitch Space. New York, NY: Oxford, 2001. ISBN: 9780195058345.

Bigand, in McAdams and Bigand. (course text)

Emotion, Meaning, and Expectation

Amazon logo Meyer, Leonard B. Emotion and Meaning in Music. U. Chicago, IL: Chicago, 1961. ISBN: 9780226521398.

Evolutionary Perspectives

Amazon logo Wallin, N. L., Merker, B., and Brown, S. eds. Origins of Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780262731430.

Hauser, M. D. The Evolution of Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.

Development

Trehub, S. E. "Infants' Perception of Musical Patterns." Perception and Psychophysics 41, no. 4 (1987): 635-641.

Trainor, L. J., and S. E. Trehub. "A Comparison on Infants' and Adults' Sensitivity to Western Musical Structure." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 18, no. 2 (1992): 394-402.

Musical Performance

Clarke, Eric F. "Generativity, Mimesis and the Human Body in Music Performance". Contemporary Music Review 9, parts 1 and 2 (1993): 207-219.