Readings

Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at Amazon.com! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to Amazon.com to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the book titles and purchase the book from Amazon.com, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.

LEC # TOPICS READINGS
Introduction and Background
1 Course Organization; Spirit of the Undertaking Feigenbaum, E. A. Knowledge Engineering: The Applied Side of Artificial Intelligence. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 1984, pp. 91-107.

Newell, A. "The Knowledge Level." Artificial Intelligence Magazine (Summer 1981): 1-20+.

Topolski, A. S., and D. K. Reece. "Packaging Advisortm: An Expert System for Rigid Plastic Food Package Design." In Proc Innovative Applications of AI. Edited by H. Schoor and A. Rappaport. Melo Park, CA: AAAI/MIT Press, 1989, pp. 348-357.
2 Tell it What to Know; Search Korf, R. E. "Search: A Survey of Recent Results." In Exploring Artificial Intelligence. Edited by H. E. Shrobe. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1988, pp. 197-237. ISBN: 0934613672.

ACM Computing Surveys 27, no. 3 (Sept 1995): 337-339. [An update to the previous paper.]

Rowley, S., H. Shrobe, R. Cassels, and W. Hamscher. "Joshua: Uniform Access to Heterogenous Knowledge Structures (or Why Joshing is better than Conniving or Planning.)" Seattle, WA: National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI-87, 1987, pp. 48-52.

Rich, C., H. E. Shrobe, and R. C. Waters. "Computer Aided Evolutionary Design for Software Engineering." MIT/AI Memo 506, Jan 1979.
The Spirit and Pragmatics of KBS
3 Origins of KBS: MACSYMA and DENDRAL Slagel, J. R. "A Heuristic Program that Solves Symbolic Integration Problems in Freshman Calculus." In Computers and Thought. E.A Feigenbaum, J. Feldman.Cambridge, MA: AAAI Press, 1995, pp. 191-203. ISBN: 0262560925.

Moses, J. "How SIN Differs from SAINT." Chapter 2 in PhD Thesis.

Feigenbaum, E. A., B. G. Buchanan, and J. Lederberg. "On Generality and Problem Solving: A Case Study Using the DENDRAL Program." In Machine Intelligence 6. Edited by Meltzer, and Michie. pp. 165-189.
4 Application Analysis Case Study: Case Introduction Sviokla, J. "Smartwave: The Wave-Soldering Expert System." Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, Harvard Business School Cases #0-187-062 and #0-187-063.
5 Application Analysis Case Study: Class Discussion
6 Rule-Based Systems Davis, R. "Production Rules as a Representation for a Knowledge-based Consultation Program." Artificial Intelligence Journal, no. 8 (1977): 15-45.

Duda, R., J. Gaschnig, and P. Hart. "Model Design in the Prospector Consultant System for Mineral Exploration." In Expert Systems in the Microelectronic Age. Edited by Michie. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 1979, pp. 154-167.

Campbell, A. N., V. F. Hollister, R. O. Duda, and P. E. Hart. "Recognition of a Hidden Mineral Deposit by an Artificial Intelligence Program." Science, no. 217 (Sept 3, 1982): 927-929.
Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Paradigms
7 Semantic Nets Quillian, M. Ross. "Semantic Memory." In Semantic Information Processing. Edited by M. Minsky. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1968, pp. 227-270.

MacGregor, R. "The Evolving Technology of Classification-based Knowledge Representation Systems." In Principles of Semantic Networks. Edited by J. Sowa. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1991, pp. 385-400. ISBN: 1558600884.

Brachman, R., et. al. "Living with Classic: When and how to use a KL-ONE like Language." In Principles of Semantic Networks. Edited by J. Sowa. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1991, pp. 401-456. ISBN: 1558600884.
8 Logic Sergot, et. al. "The British Nationality Act As A Logic Program." Communications of the ACM (May 1986): 370-386.

Smith, D., and E. Parra. "Transformational Approach to Transportation Scheduling." In Proceedings of the 8th Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Conference. Chicago, IL.: IEEE Computer Society Press, Sept 14-17, 1993, pp. 60-68.

Brachman, R., and H. Levesque. "Undirected Behavior without Unbounded Search." ACM Surveys (Sept 1995): 314-316.

Ginsberg, M. L. "Epistemological and Heuristic Adequacy Revisited." ACM Computing Surveys (Sept 1995): 331-333.
9 Frame-Based Systems Minsky, M. "A Framework for Representing Knowledge." In Readings in Knowledge Representation. Edited by R. Brachman, and H. Levesque. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 246-262. ISBN: 093461301X.

Pauker, S. G., et. al. "Towards the Simulation of Clinical Cognition. Taking a Present Illness by Computer." Chapter 6 in Readings in Medical Artificial Intelligence. Edited by W. Clancey, and E. Shortliffe. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984. ISBN: 0201108542.

Miller, et al. "Internist-1, An Experimental Computer-Based Diagnostic Consultant for General Internal Medicine." In Readings in Medical Artificial Intelligence. Edited by W. Clancey, and E. Shortliffe. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984, pp. 190-209. ISBN: 0201108542.
10 Uncertain Reasoning, Models of Rationality Szolovits, P. "Uncertainty and Decisions in Medical Informatics." Methods of Information in Medicine 34 (1995): 111-121.

Heckerman, D., and M. Wellman. "Bayesian Networks." CACM (March 1995): 27-30.

Wellman, M., et. al. "From Knowledge Bases to Decision Models." Knowledge Engineering Review 7, no. 1 (1992): 35-53.

Dubois, D., and H. Prade. "What does Fuzzy Logic bring to AI?" ACM Computing Surveys 27, no. 3 (Sept 1995): 328-330.

Elkan, C. "The Paradoxical Success of Fuzzy Logic." The Proceedings of the AAAI (1993): 698-703, and Reply to Comments on the Paradoxical Success of Fuzzy Logic, IEEE Expert (August 1994).
11 Blackboards Corkill, D. "Blackboard Systems." AI Expert 6, no. 9 (September 1991): 40-47.

Erman, L. D., F. Hayes-Roth, V. R. Lesser, and D. R. Reddy. "The Hearsay-II Speech-Understanding System: Integrating Knowledge to Resolve Uncertainty." Computing Surveys 12, no. 2 (June 1980): 213-253. (Also appears in: Engelmore R. S., and A. M., eds. Blackboard Systems. pp. 503-518.)

Nii, H. P. "The Blackboard Model of Problem Solving and the Evolution of Blackboard Architectures (Part One)." AI Magazine 7, no. 2 (Summer 1986): 38-53.

———. "Blackboard Application Systems and a Knowledge Engineering Perspective (Part Two)." AI Magazine 7, no. 2 (Summer 1986): 82-107.
12 Pragmatic Issues in Knowledge Acquisition Cooke, N. J. "Varieties of Knowledge Elicitation Techniques." Int. J. Human-Computer Studies, no. 41 (1994): 801-849.
13 Summary of Knowledge Representation Hayes, P. "The Logic of Frames." In Readings in Knowledge Representation. Edited by R. Brachman, and H. Levesque. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 287-296. ISBN: 093461301X.

Shubert, L. "Semantic Nets are in the Eye of the Beholder." In Principles of Semantic Networks. Edited by J. Sowa. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1991, pp. 95-107. ISBN: 1558600884.

Davis, R., H. Shrobe, and P. Szolovits. "What is a Knowledge Representation?" AI Magazine 14, no. 1 (Spring 1993): pp. 17-33.
Problem Solving Paradigms
14 Causal Reasoning Patil, R. S., P. Szolovits, and W. B. Schwartz. "Causal Understanding of Patient Illness in Medical Diagnosis." In Readings in Medical Artificial Intelligence. Edited by W. Clancey, and E. Shortliffe. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984, pp. 229-360. ISBN: 0201108542.

Patil, R. S. "Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Diagnostic Reasoning." Chapter 9 in Exploring Artificial Intelligence. Edited by H. E. Shrobe. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1988. ISBN: 0934613672.

Simmons, R., and R. Davis. "Generate Test Debug." International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 1987, pp. 1071-1078.
15 Model-Based Reasoning Davis, R. "Diagnostic Reasoning Based on Structure and Behavior." Artificial Intelligence Journal, no. 24 (Dec 84): 347-410.

Davis, R., and W. Hamscher. "Model-Based Reasoning: Troubleshooting." Chapter 8 in Exploring Artificial Intelligence. Edited by H. E. Shrobe. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1988. ISBN: 0934613672.

Hamscher, W. "Temporally Coarse Representation of Behavior for Model-Based Troubleshooting of Digital Circuits." International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Detroit, MI, 1989, pp. 887-893.
16 Case-Based Reasoning

Kolodner, J. L., and D. B. Leake. "A Tutorial Introduction to Case-Based Reasoning." In Case-Based Reasoning: Experiences, Lessons, and Future Directions. Edited by D. B. Leake. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 31-65. ISBN: 026262110X.

Slade, S. "Case-Based Reasoning: A Research Paradigm." AI Magazine (1991): 42-55.

Hinkle, D., and C. Toomey. "Applying Case-Based Reasoning to Manufacturing." AI Magazine (Spring 1995): 65-73.

Koton, P. "A Medical Reasoning Program that Improves with Experience." Los Angeles, CA: SCAMC Proceedings (1988): 32-37.

Chi, R., et. al. "Generalized Case-Based Reasoning System for Portfolio Management." Expert Systems with Applications 6 (1993): 67-76.

Porter B., R. Bareiss, and R. Holte. "Concept Learning and Heuristic Classification in Weak-theory Domains." Artificial Intelligence, no. 45 (1990): 229-263.

17 Reasoning with Constraints Paltrinieri, M. "On the Design of Constraint Satisfaction Problems." Second International Workshop on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (PPCP-94), 1994, pp. 299-311.

Fox, M. S. "ISIS: A Retrospective." In Intelligent Scheduling. Edited by M. Zweben and M. S. Fox. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1994, pp. 3-28. ISBN: 1558602607.

Kumar, V. "Algorithms for Constraint-satisfaction Problems: A Survey." AI Magazine (Spring 1992): 32-44.
18 Reasoning about Physical Systems Forbus, K. D. "Qualitative Physics: Past, Present and Future." Chapter 7 in Exploring Artificial Intelligence. Edited by H. E. Shrobe. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1988. ISBN: 0934613672.

Stahovich, T., R. Davis, and H. Shrobe. "Qualitative Rigid Body Mechanics." Proc AAAI-97, pp. 138-144.
Research Issues
19 Human Intelligence Project
20 Common Sense Minsky, M. "Commonsense-based Interfaces." CACM (August 2000): 67-73.

Singh, Barry, and Liu. "Teaching Machines about Everyday Life." BT Technology Journal 22, no. 4 (2004): 227-240.

Lieberman, Liu, Singh, and Barry. "Beating Common Sense into Interactive Applications." AI Magazine 25, no. 4 (Winter 2004): 63-76.
21 Learning
22 Ontologies and Data Mining Uschold, and Gruninger. "Ontologies: Principles, Methods and Applications." The Knowledge Engineering Review (1996): 93-136.

Noy, and Hafner. "The State of the Art in Ontology Design." AI Magazine (Fall 1997): 53-74.

Hovy, E. H., and K. Knight. "Motivation for Shared Ontologies: An Example from the Pangloss Collaboration." Proceedings of the Workshop on Knowledge Sharing and Information Interchange, IJCAI-93, Chambery, France.

Gruber, and Olsen. "An Ontology for Engineering Mathematics." Stanford KSL Report 94-18. Stanford University, 1994.
Project Presentations
23 Project Presentations and Discussion
24 Project Presentations and Discussion (cont.)
25 Project Presentations and Discussion (cont.)
26 Project Presentations and Discussion (cont.)