# Study Materials

This section contains documents created from scanned original files and other documents that could not be made accessible to screen reader software. A "#" symbol is used to denote such documents.

The following supplemental materials were presented through the course to add depth to some of the topics covered through lecture, as well as to provide references to equations and values of constants.

Practice Problems - Lecture 2 (PDF)^{#}, Solutions (PDF)

Activity Coefficient Equations (PDF)^{#}

A summary of when to use which equations for activity. Note: use Davies Eqn for class problems. Note an error: Davies brackets extend to include the "-bI" term. Note that for the extended Debye-Huckel,

Irefers to true ionic strength, where complexation is considered (rather than complete dissolution of the ions in solution). The true ionic strength is typically lower than the ionic strength that assumes complete dissociation. For now, you can use the latter (since you haven't learned about complexation yet).

Acidity and Basicity Constants (PDF)

Gas Constants (PDF)^{#}

A description of the subtle differences between the various gas constants. You do not need to memorize these- this is just to help you understand the discrepancies in the equations as you go between different texts.

Alpha Equations (PDF)

Deffeyes Diagram (PDF)

TOT Carbonate vs. TOT Alk vs. pH

Phase Rule Clarifications (PDF)

Clarifications on the Phase Rule

Fe(III) Speciation (PDF)