Readings

Structural Member References

This section contains references to a variety of structures categorized according to building type, joint details, construction materials and load paths.


Tall Buildings

239152427


Suspension Structures

2791215192223


Bridges

17812151921222324


Arches

12141825


Trusses

8: p129. The Bridge of the Firth of Forth, Scotland, 1889

26: 08.97, p84. Cogeneration Plant, Jamaica, N.Y. Detail of a Steel Space Frame. Shows clear pin joints. They have been emphasized by the tapering of the members into "ball" connectors.

27: 09.96, p181. The Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain 1997 by Frank Gehry. Truss/Framework to provide the skeleton for Gehry's unusual forms shows just what sort of shapes can be possible - anything's possible!

27: 09.96, p181. The Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain 1997 by Frank Gehry. View of finished shape with cladding applied.

27: 09.96, p181. The Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain 1997 by Frank Gehry.

27: 09.96, p162. Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China. The steel framing of the aperture and pedestrian bridge which spans it, can be seen.


Various Connection/Joint Details

2: p30. AEG Building, turbine factory, Berlin, 1909. Detail of base of the portal frame, showing the pin connection.

2: p30. AEG Building, turbine factory, Berlin, 1909. Facade showing the vertical legs of the portal frame. If the columns are looked at carefully, their tapering can be seen, increasing in section as the moment in the frame increases.

2: p321. Benjamin Sheares Bridge, Singapore. Sketch of Elevation. Bridge deck including precast concrete beams and insitu beams over the trestle supports. Illustrates the use of restrained and sliding joints.

2: p321. Typical Column Joint Details.

2: p321. Typical Beam to Column Joint Details.

2: p206. Typical Bracing Layout and Joint Details. Connections of the diagonals represent pinned joints.

4: p13. Pin Joint Detail on Arched Bridge, by Gustave Eiffel, 1889.

4: p18. Pin Joint Detail on Column supporting a larged arched roof, by Gustave Eiffel, 1889.

7: p50. Oudry-Mesly Bridge, Spain. Arch support hinge detail.

11: p87. Knuckle Pin Bearings under railway bridge. Another representation of a true "pin" (no moment) support.

11: p151. An Expansion Joint for large movements.

11: p151. Western Avenue Extension, London, UK. Example of a Rotation Bearings on Piers represents a true "pin" (no moment)support.

12: p186. Jagst Viaduct Widdern is constructed of a single box girder with a cantilevering deck slab supported by inclined struts. Can see bearings at top of each pier providing "simple" or "pinned" support.

12: p286. Anchors for the Hanger Ropes of a Suspension Bridge.

17: p161. Column Joint, by Renzo Piano. Good example of pin joint.

21: p20. The Eads Bridge, Missouri, 1874. Truss detail at connection with the bridge pier. shows detailing for "pinned" connections of the members.

21: p41. The Eads Bridge, Missouri, 1874. Another truss detail similarly showing the detailing for "pinned" connections of the members.

23: plate 24. The San Francisco Bay Bridge, 1936. Image of the Cable Saddle at the top of a tower for a large suspension bridge, during construction.

23: plate 48. The San Francisco Bay Bridge, 1936. View through the Cable Saddle, awaiting the placement of the suspension bridge cables. Another tower is seen in the distance, showing it's bracing framework.

26: 08.97, p84.  Cogeneration Plant, Jamaica, N.Y. Detail of a Steel Space Frame.  Shows well articulated pin joints. They have been emphasized by the tapering of the members into "ball" connectors.


Examples of the Different Construction Materials

1: p94. Birs River Bridge at Liesberg, 1936. by Maillart. Detail from underside. Great view demonstrating maximum moments and primary secondary members. The column base spreads to load the foundation more evenly. The primary beam is haunched at the maximum moment over the support. It also allows it to have a smoother transition with the column.

1: p48. Salginatobel Bridge by Robert Maillart, 1930. A three pinned arch, at both the support hinges and the hinge at midspan can be seen. There is also a slight haunching of the deck beams at the cross wall supports.

12: p71. Pont du Gard near Nimes. An aqueduct built 63-13B.C., it had a road bridge running at the lower level added in 1747.

12: p92. Suspension Bridge over Min River, China made of fibre rope, 552m long.

13: Fig #13. Gatti-Wollspinnerei und -weberei, Rome, by Nervi 1951-53. Concrete Slab. Shows great use of concrete with floor beam structure almost having a form of principal stresses. The columns are also splayed at top to allow good integration and for punching shear.

14: p67. Segovia Aqueduct, first century A.D. Placements of stones show good load path as well as how the stone has been used in the past to it's best advantage - it is in compression.

14: p111. Sens Cathedral, c1145-1164.

14: p218. Westminster Hall, London, late 1300A.D. good example of old elaborate wood work, with well described load paths.

15: p184. Schlumberger Fabris Roof, Cambridge, England Tensile Roof of Cables and Membrane.

15: p40.  National Recreation Centre, Crystal Palace, London. Stadium Roof. Steel Roof, with haunched beams. shows again a good load path can actually think about how it's working.

16: p183. The UNESCO Worshop on Natural Structures, Genoa, 1986. Internal view. Good "modern" timber usage, with roofing layout displaying the primary and secondary members.

18: one of the front plates and p121. Pavillion of the Future, Expo '92, Seville. Show modern possible uses of the similar stone... not just a "typical arch".

25: p6. Chefren Temple, Pillared Hall, 2400B.C. Shows how long stone has been around. how well formed it was back then and it's stong design. Design uses columns and beams with short spans as stone has low tensile strength.

27: 10.96, p106.  Paper Church, by Shigaru Ban. It's paper! Well at least the columns are.

Watching the Load Path through the Structures

1: p94. Birs River Bridge at Liesberg, 1936. by Maillart. Detail from underside.  Great view demonstrating maximum moments and primary secondary members. The column base spreads to load the foundation more evenly. The primary beam is haunched at the maximum moment over the support. It also allows it to have a smoother transition with the column.

2: p257. First Exchange House, London, England 1989 Elevation showing the structural layout. Shows good load path - columns above arch are in compression, while those below are hangers in tension. The arch is in pure axial loading with some extra capacity to cope with extraneous bending moments. Lateral loads are carried by frame action in the structure above the arch and the primarily by the diagonal ties below the arch.

2: p295. Illustrations of the Effect of Out of Balance Loading on Suspension Roofs. Demonstrates the effects and then ways of overcoming them.

3: p297. Kuwait Chancery, Washington, D.C. 1982. Support system for Large Cantilever quite visible from truss and large corner columns. Interesting Structural system and form.

8: p129. The Bridge of the Firth of Forth, Scotland, 1889

9: p150. First Exchange House. (Bishopsgate Project, Broadgate) London, England 1989. Transfer Structure - see below.

13: Fig #1. Stadtisches Stadion, Florence, by Nervi 1930-32. Detail mit Treppe. Interesting form - curved beams support each other - can think about how they work and about torsion.

13: Fig #13. Gatti-Wollspinnerei und -weberei, Rome, by Nervi 1951-53. Concrete Slab. Shows great use of concrete with floor beam structure almost having a form of principal stresses. The columns are also splayed at top to allow good integration and for punching shear.

13: Fig #14. Salone delle Feste, Chianciano, by Nervi 1952. Decke des Festsaales. All concrete - beautiful dome - shows good support system with lines following "prinicpal" stress lines?

13: Fig #14. Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome, by Nervi 1956/57. Another roof similar to above - All concrete again showing good support system with lines following "prinicpal" stress lines?

14: p113. Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris. Cross-section illustrates the load paths- including the use of flying buttresses and arches and how they work....

14: p188. Westminster Hall, late 1300A.D. Roof Framing. Can see the load paths more clearly, including the role of each member and it's action.

14: p218. Westminster Hall, London, late 1300A.D. Good example of old elaborate wood work, with well described load paths.

15: p40. National Recreation Centre, Crystal Palace, London Stadium Roof. Steel Roof, with haunched beams. Shows again a good load path can actually think about how it's working.

15: p196. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, Hong Kong, 1987. Good display of load path through building - use of hanger ties/truss action, and bending action of major column frames.

16: p95. Bari Stadium, Italy, 1987-90. Architectural Model of the Structure. Cross-sectional view allows the load path to be easily followed.

16: p183. The UNESCO Worshop on Natural Structures, Genoa, 1986. Internal view  good "modern" timber usage, with roofing layout displaying the primary and secondary members.

19: p11. Julius Caesar's Bridge over the Rhine, drawn by A. Palladio. Very elementary structure - shows load paths well and can see what each element does.

20: p15. Hangar, Design II, by Nervi 1939. Good Barrel vault structure with clear load carrying elements and large buttress supports. Again all concrete.

20: p17. Salone B, Exposition Halls, Turin, by Nervi 1949. Interesting arched roof, with clear load path seen to columns from members.

24: p116. The Bridge of the Firth of Forth, Scotland, 1889. "A living model illustrating the structural principles".



Reference List

1. Billington, D. P. "Robert Maillart and the Art of Reinforced Concrete." The Architectural History Foundation. New York, N.Y.: MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990 [TG340.B56 1990].

2. Blanc, A., M. McEvoy, R. Plank. Architecture and Construction in Steel. London: E&FN Spon, 1993 [TH1611.A73 1993].

3. Bush-Brown, A. Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Architecture and Urbanism 1973 -1983. New York, N.Y.: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983 [NA737.S628.B87 1984].

4. Crosnier Leconte, M.-L., A. Granet, Marrey, B. Eiffel. La Bibliotheque des Expositions Adam Biro. Paris, 1989 [TA140.E4.E4 1989].

5. Elliott, C. D. "Technics and Architecture." In The Development of Materials and Systems for Buildings. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1992 [TH18.E45 1992].

6. Englekirk, R. "Steel Structures." In Controlling Behavior through Design. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, 1994 [TA684.E66 1994].

7. Frampton, K. Calatrava Bridges Birkhauser Verlag. Boston, MA: Basel, 1996 [NA1313.C35.F73 1996].

8. Gordon, J. E. The Science of Structures and Materials Scientific American Books. New York, N.Y. 1988 [TA405.G62 1988].

9. Graham, B. Bruce Graham of SOM Rizzoli International. New York, N.Y. 1989 [NA737.G715.B7 1989].

10. Herzog, T., P. L. Nervi. Gestalten in Beton zum Werk von Pier Luigi Nervi Rudolf Muller. Koln, 1989 [NA1123.N456.G37 1989].

11. Lee, D. J. Bridge Bearings and Expansion Joints. London: E&FN Spon, 1994 [TG326.L42 1994].

12. Leonhardt, F. Brucken: Asthetik und Gestaltung = Bridges: Aesthetics and Design. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1982 [TG145.L46 1982].

13. Major, M. Pier Luigi Nervi Henschelverlag. Berlin, 1970 [NA1123.N456.M2341].

14. Mark, R. ed. "Architectural Technology up to the Scientific Revolution." In The Art and Structure of Large-Scale Buildings. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1993 [TH15.A73 1993].

15. Ove Arup and Partners. Ove Arup & Partners 1946-1986. London: Academy Editions, 1986 [TA140.O96.O84 1986].

16. Piano, R. Renzo Piano - Progetti e architetture 1987-1994. Milano: Electra, c1994 [NA1123.P47.A4 1994a].

17. Piano, R. Renzo Piano and Building Workshop Buildings and Projects 1971-1989. Rizzoli International, 1989 [NA1123.P581.A45 1989].

18. Rice, P. An Engineer Imagines Artemis. London, c1994 [TH140.R5.E44 1994].

19. Roig, J. Nuevos Puentes/New Bridges Gustavo Gili. Barcelona, 1996 [TG20.R65 1996].

20. San Francisco Museum of Art Nervi Space and Structural Integrity Associated Arts Foundation, San Francisco CA 1961 [NA1123.N456.S195].

21. Scott, Q., and H. S. Miller. Columbia, MO: The Eads Bridge University of Missouri Press, 1979 [TG25.S15.S36].

22. Sharp, D., ed. "Santiago Calatrava." Architectural Monographs. No. 46, London: Academy Editions, 1996 [NA680.A6733 no.46].

23. Stackpole, P. The Bridge Builders Pomegranate. Corte Madera, CA 1984 [TG25.S237.S83 1984].

24. Walker, D. "Great Engineers." In The Art of British Engineers 1837-1987. London: Academy Editions, 1987 [TA57.G74 1987].

25. Wilson, F. "Architecture." In Fundamental Issues. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990 [NA1996.W517 1990].

26. Architectural Record. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1891. (Journal)

27. Architecture. New York, N.Y.:  C. Scribner's Sons, 1900. (Journal)

28. Arkitektur. Stockholm: AB Byggmastarens Forlag, 1959. (Journal)